Understanding New TV Tech: OLED TV, Nano Crystal Technology, Quantum Dot and What It All Means

New technologies like OLED TV and nano crystals are part of the best flat screen TVs this year.

OLED TV-Nano Crystal Technology

As new televisions arrive in electronics shops, custom installers and online stores, TV buyers are faced with an assortment of new technology terms and decisions: OLED TV or nano crystal technology or quantum dot. One of the most important questions buyers always ask is what’s the best flat panel TV.

If you had asked me that a year or two or more ago, I would have easily been able to answer–buy a plasma. And in most cases, the best plasma TVs were Panasonic plasmas. But those days are gone. No more plasma.

That doesn’t mean that the days of really great TVs are gone too. LED TVs have gotten considerably better since the first washed out and blotchy sets arrived years ago thanks to features like in-plane switching (IPS) and local dimming. Even better, new (or newish) technologies are hitting stores that have the potential to produce the best TV pictures we’ve ever seen. I’m talking about OLED and nano crystal (AKA quantum dot, SUHD… whatever). Both new display technologies look great, and they’re not merely theories any more–they’re real TVs. You may see some manufacturers comparing the two (claiming the technology they support is better than the other, of course), so let’s take a look at both so you know what you’re looking at when it comes time to look.

For this discussion, we need to focus a little bit on two words: emissive and transmissive. TVs that rely on emissive light–meaning that the image itself produces the TV’s light include CRT TVs (which can only be found in garage sales or my father’s rec room) and plasma TVs. Both of those use phosphors that light up more or less on the screen surface. Transmissive TVs have a light source behind them that produces the light and passes it through filters and whatnot. All LCD TVs are transmissive. The original CCFL LCD TVs used cold-cathode fluorescent lamps either behind or on the sides of the TVs. That light is transmitted from the lamp source, through the TV’s liquid crystals, and also through color filters. With LED-based LCD TVs, the CCFL part has been replaced by LED lights that can be more accurately controlled and somewhat locally dimmed.

First, what is OLED?

A OLED TV uses a layer of light emitting material within the panel in which the light-producing part is composed of an organic matter, such as carbon. This is an emissive technology because the TV’s image actually produces the light, rather than a light source behind the image. However, there are two ways to produce OLED TVs. One is LG’s method, called WRGB, which uses all white OLEDs behind color filters. The other method used red, green and blue OLEDs. The latter is more expensive and has proved difficult to produce in quantities to make it cost effective for large TVs.

What are the benefits of OLED?

Because individual OLED elements can be turned on and off, the technology produces near perfect black levels. They’re also plenty bright and don’t easily wash out in a bright room. The contrast on an OLED is incredible. OLED TVs also product very wide viewing angles, so the image doesn’t diminish when you move to the side.

OLED sounds great, right? Well, it should. Last year both LG’s and Samsung’s OLED TVs tied for first place in the Value Electronics HDTV shootout. The downside is their cost. OLED TVs, on a dollar per inch basis, are among the most expensive, though they’re coming down significantly from the $15,000 55-inch models that initially launched in 2013.

LG is currently the main force behind OLED. Samsung also offers them, but is much more bullish on nano crystals, which brings us to…

What are nano crystals or quantum dots?

Nano crystal or quantum dot technology is a new TV technology that uses nanoscopically small crystals (5 to 20 nanometers in size) as both a light and color source. In most TV applications, nano crystals of various sizes are spread across a thin film in the LCD display panel. When commanded, they emit light in various colors depending on the size of the crystal. The result is an LCD TV that is both brighter and features more enhances colors than a standard LED TV. Because a quantum dot TV still uses LED backlighting, these TVs essentially are a combination of both transmissive and emissive technology. While several companies, including LG, Sony, TCL and Samsung are putting nano crystals to work in new TVs, Samsung is probably the biggest backer of the technology and calls all its nano crystal TVs SUHD (the UHD stands for Ultra High Definition, but the S–who knows?).

What are the benefits of quantum dot?

Quantum dot TVs offer many of the same benefits as OLED (brighter picture, richer colors) but for less money. For example, LG’s 65-inch 4K EG9600 OLED TV costs $8,999 while Samsung’s 65-inch 4K JS9500 SUHD costs $5,999.

samsung JS9000ZC med

Quantum dot TVs are still LED LCD TVs, and so they may exhibit some of the issues that some LED LCD TVs suffer from, such as uneven backlighting and less-than-plasma viewing angles, but for now at least, the TVs that are getting the quantum dot treatment are the manufacturers’ premium TVs, so expect to see them with the best features, such as small zone local dimming and in-plane switching panels.

Both of the above technologies will be featured in 4K Ultra HD TV sets. In 2014 LG and Samsung offered OLED in 1080p models, and those models persist in 2015, but expect 4K take over the territory soon.

And what about those curves? Both OLED and nano crystal technology will be appearing in curved TVs this year. Despite how manufacturers pitch it, the curve is a design feature rather than a picture enhancement feature. If you like the look, go for it. If not, then sit on your hands until the curve fad wears itself out.

Make an intelligent selection for your new Smart TV, download our Smart TV Buying Guide.

This article was originally published on May 12, 2015 and updated on November 4, 2015.

Comments
  • What they all have in common is none of them look half as good as a plasma panel. Not even close. But I thank you for thoughtfully explaining some of these newer terms and technologies since this is all we have to choose from after the disappearance of plasma. It will be good to know which is the lesser of all evils.

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    • Well I don’t agree with that statement. Having been a AV salesman for 22 years I find the LG OLED tv to be by far the best tv I ever sold in every aspect of the picture.

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    • JmS. True that Plasma was superior to LCD and even LED’s. Have you SEEN these OLED t.v.’s running a true HDR signal? It really is an incredible thing to behold, Sorry pal I know you love your Plasma’s picture but when you actually witness the OLED in 65″ of awesome you will no longer believe that your plasma is still the best picture!

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  • Blue Collar Bob

    Sony has been using quantum dots (branded “Trilumious”) for 3 years now. Their material however contained trace amounts of Cadmium (banned in the european union) hence Sony went looking for a new material. They passed on both companies that Samsung and LG licenced from as their material didn’t perform to Sony’s standards so they took it back to the drawing board and developed their own nano-crystal/backlight technology. The new 900c series (running android lollipop with the X-1 processor for upconverting) will be astounding. Furthermore, Sony only makes 1 curved model available for the US market. Sony is focused on the image quality, not a design gimmick. Horray Sony… Booo Samsung/LG.

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  • BCBOB, Sony could not get the quantum dots from Samsung/LG so it had to resort to alternatives. Do you work for Sony?

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    • Have you seen the latest reviews for the Sony 900c – light bleed and subpar blacks? Sony doesn’t hold p to LG and Samsung from a fact/science-based evaluation.

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    • PedroDaGr8

      Samsung and LG licensed their technology for using quantum dots aka nanocrystals from QD Vision, Nanosys or others (I used to know the names but no longer do). While Samsung has it’s own quantum dot division (acquired from an american company), and I am pretty sure that LG would as well, the technology they use for the displays is licensed from one of these companies. These companies entered this space 5-10 years ago, patenting up a variety of really innovative designs that are just now coming to market. Being a nanotech chemist, these things are really exciting to me. The benefits of high quality quantum dots for picture fidelity is substantial. They have very pure narrow emission (much better than OLEDs). Narrow enough that you could theoretically make discrete pixels of every single color of the spectrum from blue to deep red (basically every 10-20nm of emission). Very cool stuff.

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  • Actually LG’s 65″ EG9600 OLED’s retail is only $4999.99 currently and the street price of the Samsung is $3999.99 so the difference in price is no longer as significant. And as an aside, “curved” TV is the dumbest thing ever in video history, especially Samsung’s dramatic curve (at least LG’s curve is a little more subtle and doesn’t effect picture quality as much). The best TV to buy right now is LG’s flat OLED (model # 65EF9500), at least until Panasonic and Sony get into the flat OLED market in 2016 or 2017.

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  • Miguel Breda

    Let’s see the OLED panel after its half lifespan comparing with plasma.

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  • Peter Edmunds

    Non cadmiun based nano crystals are also produced under license by Dow from Nanotech

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  • what is the HDR signal spoke of and I’m in the market for a new TV but have limited funds max 2500 what do you suggest?

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  • I love 8k and everything that it has to bring, but we aren’t even streaming in 4k yet- so what makes us all think that we might be able to watch it at a reasonable price? We need to push for all of the new tv technologies to be brought out to the normal public. Think about the practicality of a transparent Television set: “Panasonic also had a somewhat similar offering at the show with its Invisible Display. The company thinks that in a future living room, television should be visible only when it is in use. Planted on a bookshelf during the demo, the television looked like just a glass frame. But, as soon as it was turned on, it came to life. Once it was switched off, it went back to looking like a standard glass pane. see: http://www.newtechnologytv.com/2016/04/21/new-tv-technology-ces-2016/ ” It would be awesome!! This is another technology that hasn’t been explored too much, and has been around for a while.

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